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The Middle East a brief history of the last 2000 years by Bernard Lewis pdf free download

The Middle East a brief history of the last 2000 years by Bernard Lewis pdf free download

The Middle East a brief history of the last 2000 years by Bernard Lewis pdf free download. There are by now many one-volume histories of the Middle East. Most of them either end with the advent of Christianity or start with the advent of Islam. In commencing my history at the beginning of the Christian era, I seek to accomplish two purposes.

The Middle East a brief history of the last 2000 years by Bernard Lewis pdf free download

The first is to rescue the two great empires of Persia and Byzantium from the modest place usually assigned to them, along with pre-Islamic Arabia, as part of the backdrop to the career of the Prophet and the founding of the Islamic state. These rival powers, which between them shared or divided the Middle East for many enturies, deserve more than cursory mention.

The Middle East a brief history of the last 2000 years by Bernard Lewis pdf free download

My second purpose is to establish some link between the Middle East that we know today and the ancient civilizations of the region
that we know from ancient texts and monuments. During the early centuries of the Christian era, that is to say, in the period between
Jesus and Muhammad, the regions west of the Persian Empire were transformed by the consecutive processes of Hellenization, Romanization and Christianization, and the memory (though not all the traces) of these ancient civilizations was obliterated. That memory was not restored until comparatively modern times, through the work of archaeologists and orientalists.

The Middle East a brief history of the last 2000 years by Bernard Lewis pdf free download

But the direct continuing connection from the ancient to the modern Middle East, through Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, deserves attention. The earliest modern attempts to write the history of the region have necessarily concentrated on the sequence of political and military events, without which the deeper levels of history are difficult, if not impossible, to fathom. Thanks to the work of my predecessors, I have felt freer than they to reduce the political narrative to a minimum and to devote more attention to social, economic and, above all, cultural change.

The Middle East a brief history of the last 2000 years by Bernard Lewis pdf free download

With this in view, I have made frequent use of direct quotations from contemporary sources — chronicles and travels, documents and inscriptions, and sometimes even poetry and anecdote. Where suitable English translations are available, I have used and cited
them. Where they are not, I have made my own. The illustrations may also serve a similar purpose. From these, one may hope to obtain
insights which neither narrative nor even analysis can readily yield.

The Middle East a brief history of the last 2000 years by Bernard Lewis pdf free download

The Middle East a brief history of the last 2000 years by Bernard Lewis pdf free download


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