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Population and Development Report third issue International Migration and Development in the Arab Region Challenges and Opportunities pdf

Population and Development Report third issue International Migration and Development in the Arab Region Challenges and Opportunities by United Nations pdf free download

Population and Development Report third issue International Migration and Development in the Arab Region Challenges and Opportunities by United Nations pdf free download. International migration is a steadily expanding international phenomenon of long standing, which impacts on global economies and the political and economic relations between sending and receiving countries. The development of the phenomenon is correlated with local, regional and international factors and therefore affected by diverse and complex variables and the major production stages in countries receiving and sending migrants. One of the most important indicators of the dynamism and complexity of international migration is perhaps the fact that it is directly, rapidly and instantly affected by the challenges of globalization at the Arab regional and international levels.

Population and Development Report third issue International Migration and Development in the Arab Region Challenges and Opportunities by United Nations pdf

The facts indicate the significnace of migration in the moderm world: in 2005, there were 191 million migrants, of whom 115 million live in developed countries and 75 million in developing countries. The largest increase in the number of migrants was in high-income ountries, which received 41 million migrants. Migration is a selective process, the nature of which has been reinforced by globalization. Migrants face challenges related to their competitiveness in regional and international labour markets. Recent developments related to globalization have emerged in respect of both international and Arab international migration and introduced challenges and new opportunities.

Population and Development Report third issue International Migration and Development in the Arab Region Challenges and Opportunities by United Nations pdf

Until the 1980s, the main migration trend from the Arab Mashreq countries was towards Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. That trend gradually reduced and Arab labour was replaced by a workfore of Asian and European origin. The number of Arabs currently migrating to GCC States is one third of the total in the 1980s. While most migration from Arab Maghreb countries was originally to specific European countries and, in particular, France and Germany, new trends have emerged towards such other European countries as Italy and Spain, and New World countries including Australia, Canada and the United States of America.

Population and Development Report third issue International Migration and Development in the Arab Region Challenges and Opportunities by United Nations pdf

There has been an increase in the Arab brain drain because of the lack of policies and appropriate conditions in the Arab region for employing those scientific specializations, capacities and skills in more suitable development activities and because there is no political context that supports the intellectual and academic freedom sought by the Arab intelligentsia.

Population and Development Report third issue International Migration and Development in the Arab Region Challenges and Opportunities by United Nations pdf

In contrast, there are many incentives and attractions in receiving European and North American countries that have increased the number of skilled Arab migrants to some million. In addition to sending their own workforces, Arab Maghreb countries have become transit stations for migrants from Central and West Africa attempting to reach Italy and Spain. Forced migration has increased in the Arab region because of wars and armed conflict, as is the case with Iraq, Palestine, Somalia and the Sudan, and some migrants have become refugees. After the second Gulf war, Arab sending countries experienced an unexpected, forced reverse migration of some 2 million workers.

Population and Development Report third issue International Migration and Development in the Arab Region Challenges and Opportunities by United Nations pdf

Population and Development Report third issue International Migration and Development in the Arab Region Challenges and Opportunities by United Nations pdf


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