Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf

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Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf free download

Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf free download. The present volume publishes a number of studies that were presented at seminars held at the Department of Arabic Studies at the American University in Cairo during 1997 and 1998. The studies fall within the overall theme of the research programme, ‘Individual and society in the Mediterranean Muslim world’, sponsored by the European Science Foundation (ESF).

Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf free download

At the same time, the more immediate concern of the seminars, which operated under research group four (modes of production), was to bring together recent studies on the economic history of the region. Much of this research is based on new types of sources
and approaches. The choice of subject can be justified on a number of grounds. Of all the domains in the history of the Middle East,
the economic history still lags behind the political, diplomatic and social.

Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf free download

This is especially true of the period prior to modern times. A number of reasons explain this situation. First of all, sources for this period are not as abundant as they are for the modern and contemporary periods. There are few or no systematic statistics or figures for revenues and expenditures concerning such matters as imports and exports and incomes. Too often, economic history was written using European sources such as traveller and consular reports, as well as European archival sources.

Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf free download

For many periods, Arabic chronicles were too few and far apart to be coherent. Nevertheless, a wealth of material is found in the archives of the Ottoman and Arab world that was unknown and unexplored until a generation ago. Studies of the Middle Eastern economy have also been slow to take off, due to traditional methodological approaches. Scholars of the previous generation have all too often considered that, prior to the nineteenth century, there was no economic history to be written, because the Middle East had experienced
no change in economic conditions since ancient times.

Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf free download

They considered that, for about a millennium, economic and material conditions in trade, agriculture and production were generally
stationary. In fact, they thought that conditions had not changed until European models and capitalism were introduced into the
region. Change, when it did occur, was the result of outside forces, taking place only with the introduction of European-style banking, modern agricultural methods and rapid communications. Consequently, research concentrated on the modern and contemporary periods, on those changes termed ‘modernisation’ and on the adoption of European models.

Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf free download

Scholars assumed that before the nineteenth century, changes in individual fortunes occurred, but that they did not affect the global economy. Proponents of this view considered that Islamic societies could be studied independently of economic and material life because
these factors did not play a significant role in such societies until the nineteenth century.1 Thus, in addition to the problem
with sources, assumption about the history of the region further discouraged scholarship in the field for a long time. More recently, economic history has come to the fore in Middle Eastern studies.

Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf free download

This is, to a certain extent, due to the work of a number of scholars who were working within the theory of incorporation into the capitalist economy. This approach, developed by Immanuel Wallerstein and applied by historians to the Ottoman Empire, attempted to overcome some of the weaknesses in traditional approaches. Huri Inan-Islamoglu, for example, published work which showed that change was organic, that economies changed because of internal reasons.2 In the case of the Ottoman Empire, the centralised economy of the sixteenth century gave way to an economy in which the state had less control, opening the way for the penetration of European capitalism and the eventual incorporation of the empire into the European capitalist economy.

Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf free download

Money Land And Trade An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean by Nelly Hanna pdf download


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