Industrial Development Report 2009 Breaking In and Moving Up: New Industrial Challenges for the Bottom Billion and the Middle-Income Countries pdf

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Industrial Development Report 2009 Breaking In and Moving Up: New Industrial Challenges for the Bottom Billion and the Middle-Income Countries pdf

Industrial Development Report 2009 Breaking In and Moving Up: New Industrial Challenges for the Bottom Billion and the Middle-Income Countries pdf

Industrialization has been fundamental to economic development. Only in circumstances such as extraordinary abundance of land or resources have countries succeeded in developing without industrializing. Not only is industrialization the normal route to development, but as a result of the globalization of industry, the pace of development can be explosive. Twenty years ago, Qiaotou in China was a village. Today, it produces two thirds of the world’s buttons. This potential for explosive growth is distinctive to manufacturing. As manufacturing activity expands, instead of running up against shortages of land or resources that inevitably constrain the growth of agriculture or the extractive industries, it benefits from economies of scale: unit costs of production fall. Prior to globalization, although such cost reduction helped manufacturing to expand, the size of the domestic market constituted a constraining force. Especially in small low-income countries, the tiny market for manufactures limited the scope for reaping economies of scale. Now that markets are global, however, this constraint no longer exists. If a country can find a niche in the global market it can scale up almost without limit, as demonstrated by Qiaotou. Yet finding and maintaining a niche is not easy. A large number of the world’s poorest countries have yet to break into global industrial markets, while many middle-income countries that had found a niche are inceasingly challenged by new lower-income competitors and are in danger of de-industrializing. This report focuses in particular on these two categories of countries and sets out to outline the challenges they face. Although industrialization has been studied for decades, there is good reason to update the analysis. Recent changes in the global economy have substantially altered the opportunities for industrialization and recent academic research has, in turn, substantially changed our understanding of the process of industrialization.

Industrial Development Report 2009 Breaking In and Moving Up: New Industrial Challenges for the Bottom Billion and the Middle-Income Countries pdf

 

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