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# An Invitation to Formal Reasoning The Logic of Terms by Fred Sommers and George Englebretsen pdf

## An Invitation to Formal Reasoning The Logic of Terms by Fred Sommers and George Englebretsen pdf free download

An Invitation to Formal Reasoning The Logic of Terms by Fred Sommers and George Englebretsen pdf free download. It seems to be a fairly widely held belief among contemporary teachers of logic that one must introduce logic via the propositional, and then predicate, calculus. In particular, one would not, even if he or she believed otherwise, properly or fairly serve novice students by offering them instead something like syllogistic logic.

### An Invitation to Formal Reasoning The Logic of Terms by Fred Sommers and George Englebretsen pdf free download

Nonetheless, we intend to do just that here: introduce the subject of formal logic by way of a system that is ‘like syllogistic logic’. Our system, like old-fashioned, traditional syllogistic, is a term logic. Our version of logic (‘term-functor logic’, TFL) shares with Aristotle’s syllogistic the insight that the logical forms of statements that are involved in inferences as premises or conclusions can be construed as the result of connecting pairs of terms by means of a logical copula (functor).

#### An Invitation to Formal Reasoning The Logic of Terms by Fred Sommers and George Englebretsen pdf free download

This insight contrasts markedly with that which informs today’s standard formal logic (‘modern predicate logic’, MPL). That version of logic is due to the work of the great nineteenth century innovator in logic, Gottlob Frege. His insight concerning the logical form of statements was inspired by the language of mathematics.

##### An Invitation to Formal Reasoning The Logic of Terms by Fred Sommers and George Englebretsen pdf free download

It construes the logical form of statements as the result of functions (incomplete expressions like ‘the square root of ‘ or ‘loves’) being completed by the insertion of the appropriate arguments (name-like expressions such as ‘2’or ‘Romeo’ and ‘Juliet’). This difference between TFL and MPL is important because formal logic takes the validity or invalidity of inferences to depend completely on the forms of the statements making up those inferences. Formal logic rests on a theory of logical form (syntax).

## An Invitation to Formal Reasoning The Logic of Terms by Fred Sommers and George Englebretsen pdf free download

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