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A Brief History of the Middle East from Abraham to Arafat by Christopher Catherwood pdf

A Brief History of the Middle East from Abraham to Arafat by Christopher Catherwood pdf free download

A Brief History of the Middle East from Abraham to Arafat by Christopher Catherwood pdf download. Before we even begin a history of the Middle East, we ought first to define our terms. The very expression ‘Middle East’ is, as commentators rightly point out, a Eurocentric or certainly a Western term. The original term was Near East, but even that does not help us very much. For, if we look at a map, the area is only in the east if you look at it from Europe or the USA.

A Brief History of the Middle East from Abraham to Arafat by Christopher Catherwood pdf free download

Seen from China, for instance, it is in the west. (The Chinese, for example, call themselves the Middle Kingdom, which might be an accurate reflection of how the Chinese have seen themselves historically, but does not provide geographic accuracy). Strictly speaking, therefore, it might be better to call it something like south-west Asia. Historically other terms existed before Near East or Middle
East. These have included the Levant (as the sun rises there), the Orient or, if we look just at the region of Iraq where much
of the Hebrew Scriptures are situated, the Fertile Crescent.

A Brief History of the Middle East from Abraham to Arafat by Christopher Catherwood pdf free download

This does not take us much further, however. The Islamic conquests in the seventh century initiated the Golden Age of the Caliphates — roughly the seventh to the thirteenth centuries — and placed a vast swathe of territory under the control of the new Muslim Caliphs stretching from Spain and Morocco on the Atlantic eastwards to the borders of the Hindu Kush in what is now Pakistan. Anatolia also faced increasing Muslim inroads as Byzantine power waned. This entire region was profoundly and permanently altered by Islamic culture, and remains strongly Muslim to this day.

A Brief History of the Middle East from Abraham to Arafat by Christopher Catherwood pdf free download

Ethnic Arabs live in the northern part of Africa as well as the ancient Fertile Crescent and the Arabian Peninsula, and, for over seven centuries, they ruled over an Empire that included parts of Spain. Similarly the Turks, whose origins are in Central Asia, conquered not only the Arab heartland but much of south-eastern Europe as well, holding sway over these areas for over 500 years.

A Brief History of the Middle East from Abraham to Arafat by Christopher Catherwood pdf free download

A Brief History of the Middle East from Abraham to Arafat by Christopher Catherwood pdf download


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